here are a number of factors
to consider when determining the value of a restaurant you may wish to
purchase. This month's column covers the financial analysis, another
important area to investigate before making the decision to buy a
business. Conducting a thorough financial analysis will not only help you
compute the goodwill value of the restaurant; it will also provide you
with a sense of the profitability potential of the operation and can also
aid you in computing the initial cash investment you can afford to put up
for the restaurant purchase.
As with any business purchase, the assistance of a knowledgeable
accountant is invaluable. This is especially true when analyzing a
restaurant's finances, since an accounting professional who is familiar
with the restaurant business can spot patterns and trends in the
restaurant's past performance that can help you predict future
Your financial analysis should include an examination of all relevant
tax filings. These may include:
- federal income tax reports
- federal unemployment tax reports
- state income tax filings
- unemployment tax filings
- state sales tax reports
- workman's compensation reports
- FICA filings
- withholding tax reports
- real property tax documents
- personal property tax documents
You want to make sure that these records are consistent with all the
other financial records. These records should also reveal the projected
tax liabilities you would incur if you owned the restaurant. Keep in mind,
however, that government agencies can increase or decrease tax rates upon
change of ownership.
Other Records and Reports
Other records and reports that may be worth investigating include:
- Personnel records provide a long-term average of a major expense
item. Be on the lookout for any Department of Labor judgments against the
restaurant that may affect the sale of the restaurant.
- Cash budgets indicate the working capital requirements of the
restaurant and also point out those times of the year when you may have to
borrow short-term money to cover a temporary cash squeeze.
- Credit reports -- such as those available from Dun and Bradstreet,
purveyor credit applications or a local credit reporting service -- offer
a credit history and may indicate whether you can expect to have any
problems obtaining credit from current suppliers to the restaurant.
- Annual shareholder reports may contain audited statements. If not,
they may at least make you aware of the seller's expectations of the
Balance Sheet Analysis
The amounts represented on the balance sheet usually will not be of
interest; however, you and your accountant may be interested in some of
the patterns, trends and other related ideas that the balance sheet tends
to reveal. Some of the things worth noting are inventory turnover,
inventory amount, accounts receivable, accounts payable, loans payable,
and net worth.
Income Statement Analysis
The most important part of the financial analysis is the income
statement analysis. After reconstructing income statements from the past
two or three years, your accountant will be able to prepare a projected
statement. The critical figure to compute is the anticipated net cash flow
you will receive after satisfying all expected expenses. This is the
amount of money that will serve as the return on your investment in
purchasing the operation.
Key aspects of the income statement analysis include:
- Sales volume analysis shows what influences the sales volume, whether
the volume is accurate, whether there are any "off-the-books"
sales, potential sales volume, and potential for increasing other income
from non-food and non-beverage sales (for example, video games, parking
fees, and so on).
- Sales statistics give you a more comprehensive view of the current
customer base. Some statistics worth considering are ratio of food sales
to bar sales, average check, average gross margin, sales volume per square
foot and per full-time-equivalent employee, seasonal trends, and sales
volume potential compared to actual sales volume.
- Sales expenses analysis points out the seller's marketing efforts and
includes any advertising and promotion expenses, as well as a
consideration of potential free public relations opportunities of which
the seller has not taken full advantage.
- Pro forma income statement is probably the most important part of the
income statement analysis, which is a projection of what the income
statement will look like in six months or so after you become the
restaurant's new owner. Here, again, your accountant will be indispensable
in computing sales and expense figures for key areas, such as gross
margin, wages and salaries, employee benefits, payroll taxes, insurance,
advertising and promotional fees, income and property taxes, interest and
principal payments, leases, licenses, and a number of other factors.
Goodwill value represents the excess of earnings capacity over and
above the fair or average rate of return that ordinarily would be earned
on the restaurant's tangible assets. In computing goodwill value, you and
your accountant will want to consider such things as the restaurant's name
and the reputation it has built over the years, convenience of location,
efficient and friendly service, superior products, unique recipes and
hours of operation.
Goodwill value can be negative as well as positive and will be
calculated differently by the buyer and the seller.
If your analysis shows negative goodwill because there is an
insufficient net cash flow, you should consider ignoring the restaurant
purchase opportunity, unless you are interested in adapting the property
to another use.